Pyxis is a small, dim southern constellation. Locate it by following Canis Major’s tail away from the dog’s body and through and just to the other side of Puppis. This constellation’s deep southern placement makes it difficult to see at all. It reaches its highest nightfall ascension in March. Although the Milky Way runs through this constellation, there are few deep space objects available to the amateur astronomer’s telescope. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyxis
The unicorn is a dim equatorial constellation that is in very close proximity to several major constellations that steal the show in the region of the sky. Monoceros is south of Canis Minor and Gemini, to the left of Orion, and north of Canis Major, and reaches its highest nightfall ascension in March. There is one Messier object, M50, and four named deep space objects: Rosette Nebula (NGC 2237, 2238, 2239, and 2246), the Christmas Tree Cluster (NGC 2264), the Cone Nebula (NGC 2264), and Hubble’s Nebula (NGC 2261). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoceros
Colomba was originally named Colmba Noachi, latin for Noah’s Dove. This is a small, dim southern constellation located below the feet of Canis Major. It is so far south that it is only visible at nightfall for a few months centered on February, when it reaches its highest nightfall ascension. In addition to being visually uninteresting due to its small size, dimness, and far south placement, it is also telescopically uninteresting as well. Only one unremarkable globular star cluster (NGC 1851) can be found there with medium-sized amateur telescopes. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columba_(constellation)
Puppis, the poop deck, was once part of a much larger constellation, Argos Navis, the famous ship of Jason and the Argonauts. Puppis is the largest remnant, and Carina (keel and hull) and Vela (the sails) are the other modern constellations that were once part of Argos Navis. Puppis is located to the south and east of Canis Major, or just behind the dog’s tail. This constellation is visible just a few months of the year because of its far southern placement. It reaches its highest nightfall ascension in March, and is only visible at nightfall just a month or two before and after March. The Milky Way runs through Puppis, which accounts for the star clusters that are found there. M46 and M47 are two Messier clusters than can be seen in the same binocular field of view, and there is a third Messier cluster, M93, in the south of Puppis. There are several NGC star clusters in Puppis as well. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puppis
Canis Minor is the lesser dog that follows the great hunter, Orion. This constellation was one of the 48 constellations cataloged by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy that remains among the 88 modern constellations. This small, 71st-largest constellation is best seen in March, and is located east of Orion, south of Gemini, and northeast of Canis Major, the greater dog that follows Orion. Its brightest stars are Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris) and Gomeisa (Beta Canis Minoris). This constellation contains the Canis-Minorids meteor shower, which lasts from 4-15 December, and peaks over the nights of 10 and 11 December. The Milky Way runs through this constellation, but it contains no Messier objects. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canis_Minor
Lepus represents a hare (not to be confused with Lupus, the wolf) that is being hunted by Orion and chased by his nearby dogs, Canis Major and Canis Minor. This constellation lies just below the celestial equator, and immediately south of Orion. Lepus was one of the 48 constellations cataloged by 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy that remain among the 88 modern constellations. This 51st-largest southern constellation can be best seen in February. M79, a globular star cluster, is the only Messier object located in this constellation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepus_(constellation)
Canis Major is a bright southern constellation that contains Sirius, the brightest star in all of the night sky. This constellation was one of the 48 constellations cataloged by 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy that remain among the 88 modern constellations. This 43rd largest constellation lies just south and east of Orion, and is best seen in February.
The Milky Way runs through Canis Major with only minor obscuration by dark nebula, so this area of they sky is impressive when viewed with binoculars or a small telescope. M41, an open star cluster, is the only Messier object found in this constellation. It is home to several NGC objects that can be found by the determined telescopic observer. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canis_Major
The Orion constellation is visually one of the brightest, most distinct, and most recognizable constellations in all of the night sky. It is one of the most telescopically interesting constellations as well. Associated with and following Orion from the left are Canis Major and Canis Minor, the Hunter’s greater and lesser dogs. Immediately below Orion’s feet Lepus, the hare, flees the two dogs.
Once found for the first time, Orion is immediately recognizable on sight for a lifetime. It is rather well placed high in the southern sky right after sunset in February and March, located just south (below) a direct imaginary line drawn between Gemini and Taurus. Orion can be seen ascending in the eastern sky a few hours after sunset in December and January, and it can be seen setting in the western sky a few hours after sunset in April and May. The three almost equally spaced and almost perfectly aligned belt stars of almost equal brightness are likely to be the first thing noticed once an observer knows when and where to look. After finding the belt, identify the bright the stars outlining the torso, and be sure to look more closely for the dimmer stars that comprise Orion’s club and shield on either side of his torso. And finally, his dagger hangs below the left end of the belt stars. Within the dagger is The Great Orion Nebula, a reddish fuzzy blob that can be seen with the unaided eye.
As evidence that Orion attracted much of the ancient astronomers’ attention, this constellation has many named stars. Forming the head and shoulders are Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis), Meissa, and Bellatrix. The belt is formed of Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka, and marking the ends of the legs are Saiph and Rigel. Learn these names and point the stars out to friends that you wish to impress!
The deep sky objects is where this constellation gets really interesting. All of the nebulae in Orion are part of the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex, which is over 1,500 light-years away and is several hundred light years across. The Complex is as large as the Orion constellation itself, but is too dim to see except in deep exposure astrophotographs. This is one of the most intense star forming regions that we can see from Earth, containing both young stars and protoplanetary disks. Much of this region is bright in the infrared region of the spectrum due to the intense heat generated by star forming processes. The largest component of the Cloud, Barnard’s Loop, begins just below Orion’s right shoulder, loops toward the left above and around the belt, and ends at Orion’s right foot. the Horsehead Nebula, the Flame Nebula and the Running Man Nebula are among the most notable non-Messier nebulae in the Complex. The Great Orion Nebula (M42), perhaps the most famous Messier object of all, is located in the dagger suspended below the left end of Orion’s belt. While visible with the unaided eye, this star forming region is increasingly more stunning through binoculars and telescope, and is an exceptional photographic object. Providing much of M42’s illumination is a tight star cluster known as the Trapezium, which is usually photographically over saturated in the center in order to capture the nebula’s fainter detail at its periphery. The four-star trapezoidal asterism is easily within reach of small telescopes, but the cluster actually consists of about eight stars. This little jewel is really neat to see at the eyepiece of a small telescope. Other Messier objects in the Cloud Complex are M43 and M78. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_(constellation)
Similar to Ursa Major, which contains the Big Dipper asterism, Ursa Minor contains another recognizable asterism that is often called the Little Dipper. Some of the dimmer dipper stars can be difficult to locate in city skies, and the other stars forming the bear might be impossible to see. Polaris, the constellation’s brightest star, is found at the end of the bear’s tail, or at the end of the dipper handle. This star is thought by some to be significant because it is the brightest star in the sky, which is incorrect – Sirius in Canis Major is actually the brightest star in all of the night sky. An observer can verify that Polaris is not the brightest star in the sky by locating it, and comparing it with other stars in the rest of the sky. Polaris can be located by using the Big Dipper’s pointer stars, the two stars at the end of the dipper bowl away from the handle, and drawing an imaginary line upwards from the top of the bowl.
Ursa Minor is the 56th-largest constellation, and one of the 48 constellations cataloged by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy that remain among the 88 modern constellations. There are no Messier objects in this constellation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ursa_Minor_(constellation)